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date: 13 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The three decades after the Restoration of the monarchy proved to be years of considerable persecution for Quakers as the penal code was brutally enforced. Controversy and schism would also impact upon their meetings. This chapter provides a context for a better understanding of how Friends, individually and collectively, reacted to the dual challenges of persecution and internal conflict. Tighter organizational structures and Quaker engagement in politics and economics were key elements in the period. In addition, there were hierarchical changes, a greater interest in developing missionary work, international networks, and, for some, the potential renewal offered by emigration. Attention is paid to Foxian centralization and subsequent divisions among Friends, the role of other leading Friends, particularly William Penn and the establishment of Pennsylvania, and how Friends gradually achieved some accommodation with the state.

Keywords: centralization, emigration, literature, Restoration, persecution, schism, toleration, Fox, Keith, Penn

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