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date: 12 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Revising classical logic—to deal with the paradoxes of self-reference, or vague propositions, for the purposes of scientific theory or of metaphysical anti-realism—requires the revision of probability theory. This chapter reviews the connection between classical logic and classical probability, clarifies nonclassical logic, giving simple examples, explores modifications of probability theory, using formal analogies to the classical setting, and provides two foundational justifications for these ‘nonclassical probabilities’. There follows an examination of extensions of the nonclassical framework: to conditionalization and decision theory in particular, before a final review of open questions and alternative approaches, and an evaluation of current progress.

Keywords: probability, logic, Kleene, intuitionism, paraconsistent, Dutch book, accuracy

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