- List of Contributors
- The Ideological Origins of Fascism before 1914
- The First World War as Cultural Trauma
- The First World War as Totality
- The Aftermath of War
- Culture and Intellectuals
- The Peasant Experience under Italian Fascism
- Corporatism and the Economic Order
- Fascism and Catholicism
- Propaganda and Youth
- Women in Mussolini's Italy, 1922–1945
- Crime and Repression
- Fascism and War
- Dictators Strong or Weak?: The Model Of Benito Mussolini
- State and Society: Italy and Germany Compared
- Diplomacy and World War: The (First) Axis of Evil
- Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?
- Yugoslavia and its Successor States
- The Netherlands
- Britain and its Empire
- Comparisons and Definitions
- Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the different facets of Spanish fascism. The Spanish fascist project was essentially secular. For perhaps the first time on the Spanish right, fascism offered a radical break with the past. The reliance on religion, which had for some time defined the essential difference between left and right in Spain, was reworked to make Catholicism a national attribute. Francoism, meanwhile, was a hybrid, the result of a profound dialectic that existed between all sections of the anti-republican right during the 1930s. Fascism provided the dynamism, rhetoric, and mobilizing force that proved to be invaluable assets during the Civil War, while the Falange Española peopled Franco's New State as soldiers, killers, leaders, and officials. Falangism always existed within a wider and more general right-wing discourse and ideology that may have eventually undermined an identifiable fascism, but which had also brought it into existence in the first place.
Mary Vincent is Professor of Modern European History at the University of Sheffield. Her publications include Spain 1833–2002: People and State (Oxford, 2007) and Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic: Religion and Politics in Salamanca, 1930–6 (Oxford, 1996).
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