- List of Contributors
- The Ideological Origins of Fascism before 1914
- The First World War as Cultural Trauma
- The First World War as Totality
- The Aftermath of War
- Culture and Intellectuals
- The Peasant Experience under Italian Fascism
- Corporatism and the Economic Order
- Fascism and Catholicism
- Propaganda and Youth
- Women in Mussolini's Italy, 1922–1945
- Crime and Repression
- Fascism and War
- Dictators Strong or Weak?: The Model Of Benito Mussolini
- State and Society: Italy and Germany Compared
- Diplomacy and World War: The (First) Axis of Evil
- Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?
- Yugoslavia and its Successor States
- The Netherlands
- Britain and its Empire
- Comparisons and Definitions
- Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy
Abstract and Keywords
Whereas Hitler's Germany was centrally structured around a racial or racist ideology, a form of ‘Aryan’ anti-Semitism, Mussolini and the Italy of the ventennio were only marginally and latterly interested in questions of race, and then only for contingent or tactical reasons to do with Italy's political alignment with Nazi Germany. If the former was a ‘racial state’, the latter – even as it pursued, at times, an aggressive politics of race – was not. This article compares fascist Italy and Nazi Germany on questions of race in the light of such new insights and emphases, offering a snapshot of current thinking about the role of race in the ideology, historical reality, and ‘essential nature’ of fascism. It looks at the two regimes in parallel, in a sequence moving from origins, to legislation and action once in power, to the extremes of racial violence both reached in their final years.
Robert S. C. Gordon is Reader in Modern Italian Culture at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College. His publications include Primo Levi's Ordinary Virtues: From Testimony to Ethics (Oxford, 2001), An Introduction to Twentieth-Century Italian Literature: A Difficult Modernity (London, 2005), and (co-edited with Guido Bonsaver) Culture, Censorship and the State in 20th-Century Italy (Oxford, 2005).
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