Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 27 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

After the defeat and deaths of Hitler and Mussolini in 1945, and the demise of Stalin in his bed in 1953, dictators became less omnipresent in Europe, although Portugal's Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, unusual in his trade as tyrant in being originally a pious professor of economics, did not die until 1970, and Franco lasted until 1975, while various communist and post-communist leaders continued to shore up their power, pursuing paths where Stalin once had led. Dictators have had a bad press in those countries that have remained tied to liberal democracy and have endorsed the values and hopes of the Enlightenment. Yet, in much of the rest of society, and notably in the celebrated fields of business and sport, ‘leadership’ is an ever-more-lauded quality or attainment.

Keywords: dictators, Adolf Hitler, liberal democracy, leadership, Stalin, Europe

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.