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date: 18 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article examines the economic diplomacy of the BRIC rising powers. It analyses how the differing diplomatic styles of the BRIC states have produced a range of international outcomes, some tending towards interstate rivalry, while others are more cooperative. The article is organized as follows. The first section discusses how the intellectual problem of the rising powers has been studied heretofore in the predominant literature, and offers a political economy perspective on how the global financial crisis (that started in 2007) has induced mutual socialization and learning among the BRIC states, as rising powers. The second section considers differences in the diplomatic cultures of Brazil and China, and the relative strengths and shortcomings of the national diplomatic styles. The third section analyses how the differing diplomatic approaches of Brazil and China have been combined, together with support from India and Russia, to serve common foreign policy goals, particularly Bretton Woods reform.

Keywords: BRIC states, economic diplomacy, diplomatic activity, economic policy, foreign policy, Brazil, China, India, Russia

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