- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was originally conceived as the tariff-bargaining forum for a more comprehensive trade body, yet that big institution did not exist until the World Trade Organization came into being in 1995. The GATT became more than an effective tool for reducing tariffs and promoting global growth in trade. Its long span of success derived mainly from its focused effort to reduce trade barriers, and mainly tariff levels, and the steady institutional, structural, and programmatic growth that derived from the expansion in world trade. This happened in two stages, over the first seven rounds of negotiations during which the GATT evolved. This article focuses on these first seven rounds, and discusses the GATT philosophy as well as its recovery and competition phases. Over the years, GATT negotiating ‘rounds’, as the eight multilateral meetings that occurred from 1947 to 1994 were called, considered a host of topics. But the forum's mission of trade liberalization was so entrenched that many of the top concerns of nations became the responsibility of other organizations.
Thomas Zeiler is Professor of History and International Affairs at the University of Colorado at Boulder, and the Director of the Global Studies Residential Academic Program.
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