- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
The International Trade Organization (ITO) – an intellectual precursor of the World Trade Organization (WTO) – never existed. During and after World War II, extensive efforts were made to bring it into being, culminating in the multilateral negotiation of a charter for the organization at Havana in 1947–1948. However, the Havana Charter was never ratified, mainly because domestic opposition within the United States led the Truman administration to drop its efforts to win congressional backing for the ITO by the end of 1950. Although the attempt to create the ITO failed, it was nonetheless significant for two reasons. First, the effort to establish the ITO brought the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade into being, and this in turn had consequences for the eventual creation of the WTO. Second, the idea of the ITO marks an important staging post in the shift between two contrasting types of trade liberalism: moral internationalism and institutional internationalism. This article analyses the unsuccessful attempt to create the ITO and traces the negotiation processes that contributed to this failure.
Richard Toye is Professor of Modern History at the University of Exeter. His books include The Labour Party and the Planned Economy, 1931-1951 and (with John Toye) The UN and Global Political Economy.
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