- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and its successor, the World Trade Organization (WTO), are generally regarded as the most successful international economic organizations established in the post-World War I period. The most important accomplishment of the GATT/WTO has been a significant reduction in the levels of tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers that emerged during the great depression of the 1930s. This article highlights the successful empirical record of the GATT and the WTO in the areas of trade liberalization and dispute resolution. It also explores theories of political economy to explain why countries need to form trade agreements at all (and why they do not commit readily to unilateral trade liberalization, despite the promise of its benefits). The article first considers the terms of trade externalities and the approaches used to offset market imperfections and long-term protectionism, before concluding by discussing negotiating techniques and results.
Keywords: World Trade Organization, trade barriers, Tariffs and Trade, dispute resolution, trade liberalization, trade agreements, trade externalities, protectionism, market imperfections, political economy
Robert E. Baldwin was Hilldale Professor of Economics, Emeritus, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard in 1950 and taught at Harvard and the University of California at Los Angeles before moving to Wisconsin in 1964. He served as Chair of the Economics Department at UW-Madison in 1975–78 and Chair of the Social Systems Research Institute from 1986–1989. Baldwin published over a hundred theoretical, empirical, and policy-oriented articles in various professional journals and conference volumes in the fields of international trade and economic development. He was Chief Economist in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative in Washington in 1963–64 and served as a consultant on trade matters in the U.S. Department of Labor (1975–1976), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1975), the World Bank (1978–79), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1988, 1993, and 1997). He had also been a consultant to the Committee for Economic Development, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and the Atlantic Council. In 1991–1992, he served as Chair of the Panel on Foreign Trade Statistics for the National Academy of Science’s Committee on National Trade Statistics, and was President of the Midwest Economics Association in 1995. He was a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. In addition, he was a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and was on the Advisory Committee of the Institute for International Economics. He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He served on an international panel of experts to advise the Director-General of the World Trade Organization, Mike Moore, in 2001–2003. He was a member of the Executive Committee of the Program for International Studies in Asia and served on the International Advisory Board for Ukraine for the Economics Education and Research Consortium. Sadly, Professor Baldwin passed away in April 2011. He will be greatly missed.
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