- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
The Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) is the main transparency instrument of the World Trade Organization (WTO), affording opportunities for a process of collective evaluation of the trade policies and practices of individual members. The TPRM was founded to some degree in public choice theory, and Annex 3 of the Marrakesh Agreement recognizes the inherent value of domestic transparency of government decision making. Efforts to enhance transparency have been a feature of the multilateral trading system since its creation in 1947, as denoted by the various requirements concerning notification and publication of information contained in the original General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). This article discusses the purpose, main features, functioning, and limitations of the TPRM. It traces the evolution of the TPRM from the ad hoc surveillance schemes of the GATT in its early years to its establishment on a provisional basis in 1989, and its institutionalization on a permanent footing with the creation of the WTO.
Sam Laird is Special Professor of International Economics, University of Nottingham, Visiting Professor, Trade Policy Training Centre in Africa (TRAPCA), Arusha, and a former staff member of the Trade Policies Review Division.
Raymundo Valdés is a staff member of the Trade Policies Review Division at the WTO.
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