- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
This article explores trade in services. In contrast to non-agricultural market access and agriculture, for example, services is a relatively new area for the multilateral trading system, and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a young and incomplete agreement. Moreover, market access offers in the Doha Round compare poorly against the autonomous moves towards trade liberalization taken on by members. The article explores the reasons for this, and further analyses why, notwithstanding the poor substance of offers under GATS, a lot has happened in terms of liberalization at the ground level. In doing so, it also takes into account the implications of services liberalization as part of bilateral investment treaties and preferential trade agreements (PTAs). While services PTAs might be less trade distorting than their counterparts in merchandise trade, they generate several important costs in the form of their ‘GATS-minus’ commitments, as well as the deflection of resources away from the multilateral process. The article also considers the consequences of the GATS for rule making in the World Trade Organization.
Rudolf Adlung is Counsellor (Senior Economist) in the Trade in Services Division of the WTO Secretariat.
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