- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- The Origins and the Evolution of Language
- The History of Writing as a History of Linguistics
- History of the Study of Gesture
- The History of Sign Language Linguistics
- Orthography and the Early History of Phonetics
- From IPA to Praat and Beyond
- Nineteenth-Century Study of Sound Change from Rask to Saussure
- Discoverers of the Phoneme
- A History of Sound Symbolism
- East Asian Linguistics
- Linguistics in India
- From Semitic to Afro-Asiatic
- From Plato to Priscian: Philosophy's Legacy to Grammar
- Pedagogical Grammars Before the Eighteenth Century
- Vernaculars and the Idea of a Standard Language
- Word-Based Morphology from Aristotle to Modern WP (Word and Paradigm Models)
- General or Universal Grammar from Plato to Chomsky
- American Descriptivism (‘Structuralism’)
- Noam Chomsky's Contribution to Linguistics: A Sketch
- European Linguistics since Saussure
- Functional and Cognitive Grammars
- Lexicography from Earliest Times to the Present
- The Logico-philosophical Tradition
- Lexical Semantics from Speculative Etymology to Structuralist Semantics
- Post-structuralist and Cognitive Approaches to Meaning
- A Brief Sketch of the Historic Development of Pragmatics
- Meaning in Texts and Contexts
- Comparative, Historical, and Typological Linguistics since the Eighteenth Century
- Language, Culture, and Society
- Language, the Mind, and the Brain
- Translation: the Intertranslatability of Languages; Translation and Language Teaching
- Computational Linguistics
- The History of Corpus Linguistics
- Philosophy of Linguistics
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter traces twentieth-century interest within linguistics and other disciplines in the analysis of meaning in texts and contexts. Early approaches equated meaning with lexical meaning, although some differentiated sense and referent (Ogden and Richards) and analyzed the various senses of a word (Wittgenstein, prototype theory). Two groups differentiated themselves from the structuralist mainstream: Prague functional-structuralism (Mathesius, Jakobson, Troubetzkoy) and the London School (Firth) and Systemic Functional Linguistics (Halliday). This set the stage for the analysis of linguistic use and the development of the multidisciplinary area called discourse analysis. While there were earlier approaches in rhetoric and oratory, work on spoken language came from linguistics (information flow, deixis, spoken vs. written language), sociology (conversational analysis, variation studies, oral narrative, interactional sociolinguistics, Goffman), anthropology (ethnography of communication, focus on performance, language in verbal art and performance), and philosophy (pragmatics). For the written language, there was early interest in stylistics, and within linguistics work on text linguistics and critical discourse analysis, in addition to approaches influenced by literary studies (narratology/text semiotics, literary stylistics, genre analysis, and text pragmatics). The conclusion is that the turn to language in use has led to a dialogical, pluralistic, dynamic, and integrative view of how speakers, contexts, and meaning interplay.
Linda R. Waugh is Professor of French, English, Anthropology, Linguistics, and Language, Reading, and Culture; a faculty member in the Interdisciplinary Ph.D Program in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching; Co‐Director of the Center for Educational Resources in Culture, Language, and Literacy (CERCLL) at the University of Arizona; and Executive Director of the Roman Jakobson Intellectual Trust. Her recent research has been focused on discourse and textual analysis, identity, iconicity, metonymy, and the history of linguistics.
José Aldemar Álvarez Valencia is a doctoral student in the Interdisciplinary Ph.D program in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching at the University of Arizona. Before enrolling for the Ph.D he was a faculty member at Universidad de la Salle in Bogotá, Colombia. He has published in the areas of discourse analysis and foreign language teacher education. His current research focuses on the intersection between multimodal social semiotics and Computer Assisted Language Learning.
Tom Hong Do is a doctoral student in Rhetoric, Composition, and the Teaching of English at the University of Arizona. His research investigates the impact of assimilation and literacy on ethnic identity construction among first‐generation Asian‐Americans.
Kristen Michelson is a doctoral student in the Interdisciplinary Ph.D program in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching at the University of Arizona. Her research centres around second language acquisition and the development of intercultural competence in study abroad programmes, culture and language teaching, and semiotic representations of cultural values through media such as virtual spaces and literature.
M'Balia Thomas is a doctoral student in the Interdisciplinary Program in Second Language Acquisition and Teaching at the University of Arizona. Her research critically investigates the role of social discourses in second language learning and literacy.
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