- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- The Contributors
- Introduction, Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech(Reprint)
- Conceptual Foundations of Phonology as a Laboratory Science (reprint)
- Nature and Types of Variation: Their Interpretation Within a Laboratory Phonology Perspective
- Speaker-Related Variation–Sociophonetic Factors
- Integrating Variation in Phonological Analysis: Variation: Where Laboratory and Theoretical Phonology Meet Modeling Phonological Variation
- Message-Related Variation: Segmental Within-Speaker Variation Tonal Variation
- System-Related Variation
- Multidimensional Representations of Knowledgeof Sound Structure
- Lexical Representations: Probing Underlying Representations Asymmetric Phonological Representations of Words in the Mental Lexicon The Lexicon: Not Just Elusive, But Illusory? The Dynamic Lexicon
- Phonological Elements: The Nature Of Distinctive Features and The Issue of Natural Classes Contrastive Tone and its Implementation Modeling Phonological Category Learning
- Organization of Phonological Elements: Articulatory Representation and Organization The Role of The Syllable Inthe Organization and Realization of Sound Systems The Temporal Implementation of Prosodic Structure
- Prosodic Representations: Prosodic Structure, Constituents, and Their Implementation Segment-To-Tone Association Tonal Alignment
- Phonological Representationsin Language Acquisition: Climbing The Ladder of Abstraction
- Changes In Representations: The Nature of Historical Change The Relationship Between Synchronic Variation and Diachronic Change Modeling Exemplar-Based Phonologization
- Integrating Different Perspectives: Insights From Production, Perception, and Acquisition
- Insights From Perception and Comprehension: How Perceptual and Cognitive Constraints Affect Learning of Speech Categories Representations of Speech Sound Patterns In The Speaker's Brain: Insights From Perception Studies
- Emergent Information-Level Coupling Between Perception and Production
- Insights From Acquisition and Learning: How Phonological Representations Develop During First-Language Acquisition Speech Processing In Bilingual and Multilingual Listeners Second-Language Speech Learning
- Methodologies and Resources
- Corpora, Databases, and Internet Resources: Corpus Phonology with Speech Resources Using The Internet For Collecting Phonological Data Speech Manipulation, Synthesis, and Automatic Recognition in Laboratory Phonology Phonotactic Patterns in Lexical Corpora
- Articulatory Analysis and Acoustic Modeling: Articulatory To Acoustic Modeling Ultrasound As a Tool For Speech Research Methodologies Used to Investigate Laryngeal Function and Aerodynamic Properties of Speech On The Acoustics and Aerodynamics of Fricatives
- Prosodic Analysis: Experimental Methods and Paradigms For Prosodic Analysis Data Collection For Prosodic Analysis of Continuous Speech and Dialectal Variation
- Encoding, Decoding, and Acquisition: Studying The Receptive Phonetic/Phonological System Experimental Methods and Designs To Investigate Phonological Encoding of Spoken Language Measuring Phonetic Perception In Adults Eye Movements As A Dependent Measure In Research On Spoken Language Neurophysiological Techniques In Laboratory Phonology
- Experimental Design and Data Collection: Socially Stratified Sampling in Laboratory-Based Phonological Experimentation Methods For Studying Spontaneous Speech Methods and Experimental Design For Studying Sociophonetic Variation
- Statistical Analyses: Statistics In Laboratory Phonology Mixed-Effects Models Clustering and Classification Methods
Abstract and Keywords
This article provides an overview on segmental and tonal variations. The gap between the phonological (i.e. categorical) and physical (i.e. gradient) structure of speech in generative models has led to the development of new models. One of these models is articulatory phonology, which assumes that phonological representations consist of abstract articulatory gestures, rather than segments or features. Articulatory phonology can account for many phenomena that are well explained by non-linear phonology, since the temporal alignment of gestures may be changed, which may result in the overlap of different gestures in time. The assumption that gestures may overlap in time and be reduced in size, even to zero, makes articulatory phonology a very powerful theory. Tonal coarticulation varies as a function of prosodic factors such as segmental coarticulation. Prosodic strength also affects the temporal extent of tonal coarticulation. The prosodic organization of a language typically includes different levels of grouping, such as prosodic word vs. the intonational phrase. Segmental coarticulation is known to vary as a function of the position of target segments within a particular prosodic domain and their prominence status. The tonal variation is employed at the discourse level along with other prosodic cues such as duration and intensity, to package an utterance so as to integrate it into the information flow of ongoing discourse, a phenomenon known as the prosodic encoding of information structure.
Mirjam Ernestus is Associate Professor at the Center for Language Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen and associate editor of Laboratory Phonology. Her research focuses on production and comprehension of pronunciation variation, especially in spontaneous speech.
Yiya Chen is a Lecturer at Leiden University Center for Linguistics (LUCL) and senior researcher at Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC). Her research mainly focuses on prosody and prosodic variation, with particular attention to tonal languages. Her work has recently appeared in Journal of Phonetics and Phonetica.
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