- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- The Contributors
- Introduction, Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech(Reprint)
- Conceptual Foundations of Phonology as a Laboratory Science (reprint)
- Nature and Types of Variation: Their Interpretation Within a Laboratory Phonology Perspective
- Speaker-Related Variation–Sociophonetic Factors
- Integrating Variation in Phonological Analysis: Variation: Where Laboratory and Theoretical Phonology Meet Modeling Phonological Variation
- Message-Related Variation: Segmental Within-Speaker Variation Tonal Variation
- System-Related Variation
- Multidimensional Representations of Knowledgeof Sound Structure
- Lexical Representations: Probing Underlying Representations Asymmetric Phonological Representations of Words in the Mental Lexicon The Lexicon: Not Just Elusive, But Illusory? The Dynamic Lexicon
- Phonological Elements: The Nature Of Distinctive Features and The Issue of Natural Classes Contrastive Tone and its Implementation Modeling Phonological Category Learning
- Organization of Phonological Elements: Articulatory Representation and Organization The Role of The Syllable Inthe Organization and Realization of Sound Systems The Temporal Implementation of Prosodic Structure
- Prosodic Representations: Prosodic Structure, Constituents, and Their Implementation Segment-To-Tone Association Tonal Alignment
- Phonological Representationsin Language Acquisition: Climbing The Ladder of Abstraction
- Changes In Representations: The Nature of Historical Change The Relationship Between Synchronic Variation and Diachronic Change Modeling Exemplar-Based Phonologization
- Integrating Different Perspectives: Insights From Production, Perception, and Acquisition
- Insights From Perception and Comprehension: How Perceptual and Cognitive Constraints Affect Learning of Speech Categories Representations of Speech Sound Patterns In The Speaker's Brain: Insights From Perception Studies
- Emergent Information-Level Coupling Between Perception and Production
- Insights From Acquisition and Learning: How Phonological Representations Develop During First-Language Acquisition Speech Processing In Bilingual and Multilingual Listeners Second-Language Speech Learning
- Methodologies and Resources
- Corpora, Databases, and Internet Resources: Corpus Phonology with Speech Resources Using The Internet For Collecting Phonological Data Speech Manipulation, Synthesis, and Automatic Recognition in Laboratory Phonology Phonotactic Patterns in Lexical Corpora
- Articulatory Analysis and Acoustic Modeling: Articulatory To Acoustic Modeling Ultrasound As a Tool For Speech Research Methodologies Used to Investigate Laryngeal Function and Aerodynamic Properties of Speech On The Acoustics and Aerodynamics of Fricatives
- Prosodic Analysis: Experimental Methods and Paradigms For Prosodic Analysis Data Collection For Prosodic Analysis of Continuous Speech and Dialectal Variation
- Encoding, Decoding, and Acquisition: Studying The Receptive Phonetic/Phonological System Experimental Methods and Designs To Investigate Phonological Encoding of Spoken Language Measuring Phonetic Perception In Adults Eye Movements As A Dependent Measure In Research On Spoken Language Neurophysiological Techniques In Laboratory Phonology
- Experimental Design and Data Collection: Socially Stratified Sampling in Laboratory-Based Phonological Experimentation Methods For Studying Spontaneous Speech Methods and Experimental Design For Studying Sociophonetic Variation
- Statistical Analyses: Statistics In Laboratory Phonology Mixed-Effects Models Clustering and Classification Methods
Abstract and Keywords
This article provides significant information on the development of phonological representations. Many characteristics of infant-directed speech (IDS) have been observed consistently across a range of studies in a number of languages using different methodologies. IDS relative to adult-directed speech (ADS), has a higher pitch, greater pitch range, shorter utterances, slower rate, and simpler syntax. One aspect of IDS that is relevant for the establishment of phonological representation is the observation that speech sounds in IDS are hyperarticulated relative to the forms in ADS. The detailed acoustic studies reveal children's productions of sounds that are transcribed, as substitutions for a target sound are often acoustically intermediate between and distinct from both the target sound and correct productions of the substitute. The error patterns that children with speech sound disorder (SSD) make are often very systematic, and mirror those made by younger children acquiring the same language. SSD provides an opportunity to understand the factors that contribute to variation in pronunciation while holding other factors known to affect pronunciation such as dialect and age consistent. One consistent finding is that children with SSD have poorer speech perception ability than their age peers.
Benjamin Munson is Associate Professor of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. His research addresses the processes through which children learn phonological categories, and also the learning and processing of socially stratified variation in spoken language.
Jan Edwards is Professor of Communicative Disorders at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Research Scientist at the Waisman Center. Her research focuses on the interactions between phonological and lexical development in early childhood.
Mary E. Beckman, Ohio State University, email@example.com, "Language-specific and language-universal aspects of lingual obstruent productions in Japanese-acquiring children" (with Kiyoko Yoneyama and Jan Edwards) Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 7:18–28. (2003) The ontogeny of phonological categories and the primacy of lexical learning in linguistic development. (with Jan Edwards) Child Development 71:240–249. (2000) Japanese tone structure. (with Janet B. Pierrehumbert) Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. (1988)
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