- The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History
- List of Illustrations
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- List of Contributors
- Editor's Introduction: Postwar Europe as History
- Corporatism and the Social Democratic Moment: The Postwar Settlement, 1945–1973
- Interwar, War, Postwar: Was there a Zero Hour in 1945?
- East, West, and the Return of ‘Central’: Borders Drawn and Redrawn
- Spectres of Europe: Europe's Past, Present, and Future
- Europe and its Others: Is there a European Identity?
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Responding to ‘Order Without Life’? Living Under Communism
- The Spectre of Americanization: Western Europe in the American Century
- Immigration and Asylum: Challenges to European Identities and Citizenship
- Gendering Europe, Europeanizing Gender: The Politics of Difference in a Global Era
- 1968: Europe in Technicolour
- Making Postwar Communism
- Europe's Cold War
- The Western European Welfare State Beyond Christian and Social Democratic Ideology
- The Truth About Friendship Treaties: Behind The Iron Curtain
- A Continent Bristling With Arms: Continuity and Change In Western European Security Policies After the Second World War
- <i>‘Les Trente Glorieuses’</i>: From the Marshall Plan to the Oil Crisis
- European Integration: The Rescue of the Nation State?
- A Restructured Economy: From the Oil Crisis to the Financial Crisis, 1973–2009
- Veblen Redivivus: Leisure and Excessin Europe
- ‘Gentlemen, you are Mad!’: Mutual Assured Destruction and Cold War Culture
- What was National Stalinism?
- Colonial Fantasies Shattered
- After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal
- What Comes After Communism?
- Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia
- The Countryside: Towards a Theme Park?
- Heritage and the Reconceptualization of the Postwar European City
- The Postcolonial Condition
- Postwar Art, Architecture, and Design
- Science and Technology in Postwar Europe
- Images of Europe, European Images: Postwar European Cinema and Television Culture
- Intellectuals and Nazism
- The Great Patriotic War in Soviet and Post-Soviet Collective Memory
- Memory Wars in the ‘New Europe’
Abstract and Keywords
Was it communism or socialism that succumbed in 1989? Was communism dead in 1989, when the ‘Sinatra Doctrine’ (‘each does it his own way’) replaced the Brezhnev Doctrine in East Central Europe? Or did the patient agonise until the official dismemberment of the Soviet Union in 1991? Twenty-seven countries share a communist past in Europe and Asia. Of the surviving five, not all would pass the ‘Leninist test’. Which legacies affect post-communist systems has been an issue under debate since shortly after the fall of the Old Regimes. Claus Offe pointed out that post-communist regimes are faced with a ‘dilemma of simultaneity’, amounting to a ‘triple transition’: the process of having to cope concomitantly with unconsolidated borders, democratisation, and property redistribution. While other authors have often wondered which legacies ‘count’ in post-communism (those of communism itself or the ante-communist heritage), it is Herbert Kitschelt's merit to have pointed out that the modes of communist rule have been in turn influenced by historical antecedents.
Michael Shafir is Professor of International Relations at Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. He is the author of Romania: Politics, Economics and Society. Political Stagnation and Simulated Change (1985); Between Negation and Comparative Trivialization: Holocaust Denial in Post-Communist East-Central Europe (2002); and X-Rays and other Phobias (2010). He has published over 300 articles on communist and post-communist affairs in American, Austrian, British, Czech, Dutch, French, German, Hungarian, Israeli, Romanian, and Slovak journals, and has contributed chapters to books published in Austria, the Czech Republic, Great Britain, Romania, Slovakia, and the USA. Professor Shafir is the head of the Romanian delegation to the Task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, Remembrance, and Research (ITF).
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