Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses events in the three kingdoms of England, Ireland, and Scotland that entangled their fates and their history throughout the mid-seventeenth century. A series of political and military developments had dramatic political and social ramifications: the Bishops' Wars in Scotland; the 1641 rebellion and Confederate wars in Ireland; the English ‘Revolution’ or ‘Civil Wars’ and the Cromwellian conquests of Ireland and Scotland; the establishment of the Protectorate, and finally, the restoration of Charles II. Major figures of the period had to look beyond their national borders for survival, while representative bodies played an active role in the political machinations of their neighbouring kingdoms. All were devastated by the effects of the bloodiest warfare ever to take place in the Atlantic Archipelago and had to contend with the migration of populations and wholesale destruction of the countryside by rival armies.
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