- List of Contributors
- Face Perception: a Developmental Perspective
- Cognitive and Computational Approaches to Face Recognition
- Ecological and Social Approaches to Face Perception
- Face Neurons
- Disorders of Face Perception
- Distributed Neural Systems for Face Perception
- The Functional Architecture of the Face System: integrating Evidence from fMRI and Patient Studies
- Applied Research in Face Processing
- Are Faces Special?
- Features, Configuration, and Holistic Face Processing
- Face Perception and Perceptual Expertise in Adult and Developmental Populations
- An Experience-Based Holistic Account of the Other-Race Face Effect
- Social Categorization Influences Face Perception and Face Memory
- Adaptive Norm-Based Coding of Face Identity
- Unfamiliar Face Perception
- Face Recognition in Eyewitness Memory
- The Face-Sensitive N170 Component of the Event-Related Brain Potential
- Neurophysiological Correlates of Face Recognition
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Studies of Face Processing
- Computer-Generated Images in Face Perception
- Neurocomputational Models of Face Processing
- Does Facial Identity and Facial Expression Recognition Involve Separate Visual Routes?
- Attention and Automaticity in Processing Facial Expressions
- On Perceiving Facial Expressions: the Role of Culture and Context
- Automated Facial Expression Measurement: recent Applications to Basic Research in Human Behavior, Learning, and Education
- Influence of Personality Traits on Processing of Facial Expressions
- Real Faces, Real Emotions: perceiving Facial Expressions in Naturalistic Contexts of Voices, Bodies, and Scenes
- The Impact of Social Gaze Perception on Attention
- Neural Substrates of Social Perception
- Functional and Neural Mechanisms for Eye Gaze Processing
- Speechreading: what’s MISS-ing?
- Personality Impressions from Facial Appearance
- Structure, Expression, and Motion in Facial Attractiveness
- Neural Encoding Principles in Face Perception Revealed Using Non-Primate Models
- Face Perception in Non-Human Primates
- Taking Apart the Neural Machinery of Face Processing
- Recognizing the Faces of Other Species: What Can a Limited Skill Tell Us About Face Processing?
- The Neurodevelopment of Face Perception
- Development of Face Processing Expertise
- Sensitive Periods in Face Perception
- Impairments in Face Perception
- Developmental Prosopagnosia: cognitive, Neural, and Developmental Investigations
- Face Processing in Autism
- Facial Expression Perception in Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders
- Delusions and Faces
Abstract and Keywords
Facial expressions have communicative properties that bear some importance to perceivers. Such expressions are informative with respect to the future behavior of the expressing individual and with respect to the conditions of the broader social environment. This article argues that appropriate responses to facial expressions are an important means by which people adapt to their social ecology. The immediate responses to facial expressions depend on contextual factors. It is more important for individuals to adapt to the ingroup than to other groups, for this reason people should exhibit special sensitivity to ingroup facial expressions. It reviews the literature regarding the role of context in the recognition of facial expressions and regarding group membership and emotion recognition, with a special emphasis on the role of culture. It focuses on facial expressions of emotion if only because of available empirical literature.
Nalini Ambady, Tufts University, Psychology Department, Medford, MA, USA
Max Weisbuch is a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Denver in Denver, CO.
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