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date: 19 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses part of a challenge for democratic theory and practice, where the characteristic deficits of the conventional representative and professionalized policy-making process are highlighted. It suggests how the novel combinations of representation and administration, along with participation and deliberation, can address those deficits. The article also provides an exploration survey, where several ways of participation and deliberation can meet the shortcomings of a minimal representative policy process. The subset of solutions that deepen democratic engagement is the focus of the other sections in the article.

Keywords: democratic practice, democratic theory, characteristic deficits, conventional representative, professionalized policy-making process, exploration survey, shortcomings, minimal representative policy process, democratic engagement

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