- List of Illustrations and Tables
- List of Contributors
- Medicine and Health in the Graeco-Roman World
- Medieval Medicine
- Early Modern Medicine
- Health and Medicine in the Enlightenment
- Medicine and Modernity
- Contemporary History of Medicine and Health
- Global and Local Histories of Medicine: Interpretative Challenges and Future Possibilities
- Chinese Medicine
- Medicine in Islam and Islamic Medicine
- Medicine in Western Europe
- History of Medicine in Eastern Europe, Including Russia
- Science and Medicine in the United States of America
- Public Health and Medicine in Latin America
- History of Medicine in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Medicine and Colonialism in South Asia since 1500
- History of Medicine in Australia and New Zealand
- Childhood and Adolescence
- Medicine and Old Age
- Historical Demography and Epidemiology: The Meta-Narrative Challenge
- Chronic Illness and Disease History
- Public Health
- The Political Economy of Health Care in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
- Health, Work, and Environment: A Hippocratic Turn in Medical History
- History of Science and Medicine
- Women, Health, and Medicine
- Health and Sexuality
- Medicine and the Mind
- Medical Ethics and the Law
- Medicine and Species: One Medicine, One History?
- Histories of Heterodoxy
- Oral Testimony and the History of Medicine
- Medical Film and Television: An Alternative Path to the Cultures of Biomedicine
Abstract and Keywords
Heterodox captures the oppositional qualities of ‘alternative’ without insisting on them and thereby ruling out complementarity. This article summarizes the history of heterodox medicine. This survey uses brief case studies to examine the emergence of a global medical marketplace and ideas from the Age of Exploration to the end of the Enlightenment. It focuses on heterodox medicine in Europe and the post-Columbian Americas because it is in these cultures that a self-identified and deliberately exclusive orthodoxy has been at the heart of medical ideology and professional development and fundamental to medical consumerism. This article then turns to the rise of explicitly ‘alternative’ systems like mesmerism and homoeopathy in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the incorporation of some of those systems into biomedicine in the twentieth century. Finally, it looks at the recent historiography of heterodox medicine, and lays out potential directions for future scholarship.
Roberta Bivins is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Warwick. She has written several books on cross-cultural and heterodox medicine, and is now studying the reciprocal impacts of post-colonial immigration and medical research in the United States and Britain.
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