Abstract and Keywords
This article begins by examining recent intelligence developments within the EU. Its initial focus is institutional, asking why the intelligence activities of the EU are relatively weak, despite the strong tradition of intelligence cooperation within Europe. The article argues that while intelligence activities which might strictly be described as belonging to the EU remain limited, there have nevertheless been some significant pan-European developments. It also considers the controversial efforts of European institutions such as the Council of Europe and the European Parliament to generate oversight and accountability at the European level for multinational intelligence operations that lie beyond the capacity of national systems of inquiry.
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