Abstract and Keywords
This article describes the unusual properties of nanoscale ferroelectrics (FE), including widely tunable polarization and improved properties in strained ferroelectric thin films; polarization enhancement in superlattices; polarization saturation in ferroelectric thin films under very large inplane strains; occurrence of ferroelectric phase transitions in one-dimensional wires; existence of the toroidal structural phase in ferroelectric nanoparticles; and the symmetry-broken phase-transition path when one transforms a vortex phase into a polarization phase. The article first considers some of the critical questions on low-dimensional ferroelectricity before discussing the theoretical approaches used to determine the properties of ferroelectric nanostructures. It also looks at 2D ferroelectric structures such as surfaces, superlattices and thin films, along with 1D ferroelectric nanowires and ferroelectric nanoparticles.
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