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date: 14 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Cognitive-behavioral approaches to treatment are derived from learning principles underlying behavioral and/or cognitive therapy. Only evidence-based approaches are recommended for practice. Support for different approaches varies across substance use disorders. For alcohol use disorders, cognitive-behavioral coping skills training and cue-exposure treatment are beneficial when added to an integrated treatment program. For cocaine dependence, contingency management combined with coping skills training or community reinforcement, and coping skills training added to a full treatment program, produce increased abstinence. For marijuana abuse, contingency management or coping skills training improve outcomes. For opiate dependence, contingency management decreases use of other drugs while on methadone. For smoking, aversive conditioning produces good results and key elements of coping skills training are supported, best when medication is also used. Recent advances include Web-based coping skills training, virtual reality to present cues during cue exposure, and text-messaging to remind clients to use coping skills in the natural environment.

Keywords: behavior therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, contingency management, coping skills treatment, cue-exposure treatment, financial incentives, operant learning, respondent learning, social learning theory

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