- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Workplace Discrimination
- About the Editors
- Subtle Discrimination in the Workplace: Individual-Level Factors and Processes
- Group-Based Experiences of Discrimination: Moving Beyond Cognitive Theories
- Organizations, Employment Discrimination, and Inequality
- Employment Discrimination as Unethical Behavior
- Gender Discrimination in the Workplace
- Racial Discrimination in Organizations
- Persons With (dis)Abilities
- Age Discrimination at Work: A Review of the Research and Recommendations for the Future
- Religious Group Discrimination
- Immigrants in the Workplace: Stereotyping and Discrimination
- LGBT Workers
- Family Responsibilities and Career Outcomes: Discriminatory and Nondiscriminatory Explanations
- Modern Discrimination
- Discrimination in Employment Settings
- A Primer on Equal Employment Opportunity Law and Contemporary Enforcement
- Legal Consciousness, Mobilization, and Discrimination Disputes at Work
- International Perspective
- Measuring and Defining Discrimination
- Individual Outcomes of Discrimination in Workplaces
- Impact on Perpetrators
- Impact on Organizations
- A Stigma Lens for Considering What Targets Can Do
- What Can Allies Do?
- Organizational Remedies for Discrimination
- How Much Has America Changed in 50 Years?: An Organizational Psychologist’s Take on Social Justice Progress Since the Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Can Scholarly Works on Discrimination Make a Practical Difference?
- Moving Forward from Inequality and Discrimination: Historical Global Perspectives
- Looking Forward: What Lies Ahead in Employment Discrimination Research?
- In Conclusion: Workplace Discrimination in Context
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter advances the understanding of the impact of family responsibilities on career outcomes (e.g., hiring, promotion, and pay) by proposing an integrative model, spanning theories from economics, psychology, and sociology, that includes multiple mechanisms through which family responsibilities may affect career outcomes. The model serves as a guide for reviewing the literature on the effect of family responsibilities—including marital and breadwinner status, parental status, pregnancy, and use of family-friendly policies—on career outcomes. The chapter concludes that family responsibilities affect career outcomes, net of any productivity differences between employees with and without family responsibilities, suggesting discriminatory treatment. The effect is not uniformly negative; employees with family responsibilities have either less favorable or more favorable career outcomes than employees without. We find that whether family responsibilities positively or negatively affect career outcomes, and the mechanisms driving the effect, depends on the family responsibility type and, at times, employee gender.
Lisa M. Leslie Leonard N. Stern School of Business New York University New York, NY, USA
Patricia C. Dahm Orfalea College of Business California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, CA, USA
Colleen Flaherty Manchester Carlson School of Management University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN, USA
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