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date: 23 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter consists of two main sections. The first section is concerned with a brief and broad overview of the emergence and development of Buddhism during different periods, namely, those of the Mongol Empire, the colonial Qing rule in Mongolia, and the establishment of the Autonomous Mongolian State. This is followed by descriptions of the demise of institutional Buddhism in Mongolia, prohibition of religious freedom during the communist period, and the re-emergence of Buddhism in the early 1980s. The first section of the chapter focuses on the challenges of the early phase of the revitalization of Buddhism and on the current progress made in the effort to rebuild Buddhism as a genuine Mongolian tradition. The second section of the chapter is dedicated to the development of modern interpretations of Buddhism within contemporary Mongolia. Looking specifically at the relationship between sexuality and monasticism in contemporary Mongolia and at the tradition of married monastics, we develop a fuller understanding of contemporary Buddhist practices and identity in contemporary Mongolian Buddhism.

Keywords: Mongolia, communist, Buddhism, monasticism, sexuality

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