- The Oxford Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice
- The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making
- Editors’ Introduction
- Rational Choice Theory, Heuristics, and Biases
- Evolutionary Approaches to Rational Choice
- Multiple Interpretations of Rationality in Offender Decision Making
- Situational Crime Prevention and Offender Decision Making
- Biosocial Criminology and Models of Criminal Decision Making
- Perceptual Deterrence
- Game Theory
- Dual-Process Models of Criminal Decision Making
- Personality and Offender Decision Making: The Theoretical, Empirical, and Practical Implications for Criminology
- Temporal Discounting, Present Orientation, and Criminal Deterrence
- The Role of Moral Beliefs, Shame, and Guilt in Criminal Decision Making: An Overview of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Results
- Neural Mechanisms of Criminal Decision Making in Adolescence: The Roles of Executive Functioning and Empathy
- Social Learner Decision Making: Matching Theory as a Unifying Framework for Recasting a General Theory
- Victim Selection
- Co-offending and Co-offender Selection
- Informal Guardians and Offender Decision Making
- Police and Offender Choices: A Framework
- Crime Location Choice: State of the Art and Avenues for Future Research
- High Stakes: The Role of Weapons in Offender Decision Making
- The Effect of Alcohol and Arousal on Criminal Decision Making
- Emotions in Offender Decision Making
- Experimental Designs in the Study of Offender Decision Making
- Observational Methods of Offender Decision Making
- Understanding Offender Decision Making Using Surveys, Interviews, and Life Event Calendars
- Simulating Crime Event Decision Making: Agent-Based Social Simulations in Criminology
- Modeling Offender Decision Making with Secondary Data
- “Deciding” to Kill: Understanding Homicide Offenders’ Decision Making
- Cold-Blooded and Badass: A “Hot/Cool” Approach to Understanding Carjackers’ Decisions
- The Reasoning Sex Offender
- Burglary Decisions
- Offender Decision Making in Corporate and White-Collar Crime
- Organized Crime and Protection Rackets
Abstract and Keywords
In theory, deterrence is a behavioral response to an individual’s perceptions about the certainty and/or severity of criminal justice sanctions. The perceptual underpinnings of compliance with the law are therefore of long-standing interest in perceptual deterrence scholarship. This chapter provides an overview of the broad scope of this scholarship. After reviewing the basic perceptual elements of crime decision-making models, attention turns to a consideration of research on the determinants of sanction perceptions. First, the overall accuracy of sanction perceptions with respect to existing statutes and penalties is discussed. Second, the degree to which an individual’s sanction perceptions are updated in response to his or her experiences as a successful or unsuccessful offender is examined. Third, the manifold research traditions speaking to situational influences on sanction perceptions are surveyed. Emerging dual-process models inspired by research on judgment and decision making are finally considered.
Robert Apel is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. His research interests include the economy, crime control policy, and the life course.
Daniel S. Nagin is Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics at the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. His research focuses on the evolution of criminal and antisocial behaviors over the life course, the deterrent effect of criminal and noncriminal penalties on illegal behaviors, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data.
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