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date: 19 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reviews age differences in metacognitive control, defined as behaviors based on the monitoring of cognitive systems and states with the goal of improving the quality of cognition, especially the likelihood of successful remembering. Metacognitive monitoring and control are promising means of improving older adults’ cognition and can compensate for age-related cognitive decline. A prototypical type of metacognitive control studied in aging research involves the self-testing procedure to guide allocation of study time and strategic effort. Older adults often fail to use this strategy even though it can be highly effective for them. Evidence regarding age differences in metacognitive control using more complicated multitrial learning tasks is mixed. The literature is still in its formative stages and age differences in observed metacognitive control should not be taken as signifying irremediable aging-related deficits. Issues with the existing body of evidence and suggestions for future research questions are highlighted.

Keywords: control, item selection, study time, self-testing, memory beliefs

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