- The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy
- Introduction: Why Indian Philosophy? Why Now?
- Interpreting Indian Philosophy: Three Parables
- History and Doxography of the Philosophical Schools
- Philosophy as a Distinct Cultural Practice: The Transregional Context
- Comparison or Confluence In Philosophy?
- Nāgārjuna on Emptiness: A Comprehensive Critique of Foundationalism
- Philosophical Quietism in Nāgārjuna and Early Madhyamaka
- Habit and Karmic Result in the <i>Yogaśāstra</i>
- Vasubandhu on the Conditioning Factors and the Buddha’s Use of Language
- Buddhaghosa on the Phenomenology of Love and Compassion
- The Philosophy of Mind of Kundakunda and Umāsvāti
- Vātsyāyana: Cognition as a Guide to Action
- Bharthari on Language, Perception, and Consciousness
- Coreference and Qualification: Dignāga Debated by Kumārila and Dharmakīrti
- Reflexive Awareness and No-Self: Dignāga Debated by Uddyotakara & Dharmakīrti
- The Metaphysics of Self in Praśastapāda’s Differential Naturalism
- Proving Idealism Dharmakīrti
- Śāntideva’s Impartialist Ethics
- A History of Materialism From Ajita to Udbhaṭa
- Consciousness and Causal Emergence: Śāntarakṣita Against Physicalism
- Pushing Idealism Beyond its Limits: The Place of Philosophy in Kamalaśīla’s Steps of Cultivation
- Jayarāśi Against the Philosophers
- Two Theories of Motivation and Their Assessment by Jayanta
- Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta on the Freedom of Consciousness
- The Nature of Idealism in the <i>Mokṣopāyaśāstra/Yogavāsiṣṭha</i>
- Logic in the Tradition of Prabhācandra
- An Indian Philosophy of Law: Vijñāneśvara’s Epitome of the Law
- Śrīharṣa’s Dissident Epistemology: Of Knowledge as Assurance
- A Defeasibility Theory of Knowledge in Gaṅgeśa
- Jayatīrtha and the Problem of Perceptual Illusion
- Mādhava’s <i>Garland of Jaimini’s Reasons</i> as Exemplary Mīmāṃsā Philosophy
- Hindu Disproofs of God: Refuting Vedāntic Theism in the Sāṃkhya-Sūtra
- Raghunātha Śiromaṇi and the <i>Examination of the Truth about the Categories</i>
- Nīlakaṇṭha Caturdhara’s Advaita Vedānta
- Muḥibb Allāh Ilāhābādī on Ontology: Debates Over the Nature of Being
- Jawaharlal Nehru, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Contexts of Indian Secularism
- Freedom in Thinking: The Immersive Cosmopolitanism of Krishnachandra Bhattacharyya
- Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar’s Modern Moral Idealism: A Metaphysics of Emancipation
- Anukul Chandra Mukerji: The Modern Subject
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explores some of the challenges of interpreting Indian philosophy by examining three exemplary puzzles: the manner in which philosophical authors employed the idea of the Cārvāka system, a school of thought said to be at once skeptical, hedonistic, and materialist; the meaning of “freedom” in classical India; and the limits of reason as suggested in the work of the notable Vedānta philosopher Śaṅkara. The essay seeks to demonstrate that even in areas such as these, which are assumed to be relatively well known, matters may be not quite so clear as people are wont to believe. The field remains open to, and in need of, revised and improved interpretation of the familiar no less than of topics that seem more obscure.
Matthew T. Kapstein is Director of Tibetan Studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (Paris) and Numata Visiting Professor of Buddhist Studies at the University of Chicago. His recent books include The Tibetans (Oxford, 2006), an edited volume entitled Buddhism Between Tibet and China (Boston, 2009), and a translation of a Sanskrit philosophical allegory, The Rise of Wisdom Moon (New York, 2009).
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