Abstract and Keywords
Public pension systems are usually distinguished according to whether they are universal or contribution based. In the first instance access is determined by residency or nationality, implying that the subjects of insurance are either all legal residents or all citizens. In the second instance employment status is the determinant, implying that only workers have full access. This article focuses on the changes in the sectoral composition of economies, firm strategies, and labour markets respectively to argue that occupational pensions will gradually be transformed into individual saving accounts. It concludes with a brief discussion of the policy challenges and open research questions involved.
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