- The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology
- List of Contributors
- The Discipline of Archaeology
- The Formative Century, 1860–1960
- The Theoretical Scene, 1960–2000
- Into the Future
- Measuring the Passage of Time: Achievements and Challenges in Archaeological Dating
- Human Activity in a Spatial Context
- Data Collection by Excavation
- Mastering Materials
- The Nature of Humanness
- Early Hominids
- The Emergence of <i>Homo</i> Sapiens Sapiens
- The Neanderthals
- Peopling the World
- Hunters and Gatherers
- Early Farming and Domestication
- Studying Human Diet
- Cultural Complexity
- Trade and Interaction
- China: State Formation and Urbanization
- The Central Andean Region in Prehistory
- The Mediterranean and its Hinterland
- The Archaeology of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Pre-Islamic Central Asia
- The Circumpolar Zone
- East Asia
- The Pacific Islands
- North America
- South American Archaeology
- Indigenous Voices, Archaeology, and the Issue of Repatriation
- Sex and Gender
- Archaeological Representation: the Consumption and Creation of the Past
- Community Archaeology
- Subject Index
- Index of Personal Names: Includes all referenced authors.
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines prehistoric evidence for the emergence of bipedal hominids and the emergence of the earliest archaeological traces traditionally called the Early Stone Age in Africa and the Lower Palaeolithic in Eurasia. It explains that it was during this time that the major foundations of the human condition were established, including the quadruple increase in the human brain size and the development of hominid morphology. The fossil evidence suggests that apes were prevalent in the Old World during the Miocene period although exactly which forms may have been ancestral to the earliest hominids is still not clear.
Nicholas Toth is Co-director, Stone Age Institute, Gosport, Indiana.
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