Abstract and Keywords
Book production in Byzantium was a long and complex process, requiring a wide range of materials and skills. Every Byzantine book was a "manuscript", that is, handwritten, and mostly in Greek. The books were made primarily of papyrus, parchment, and paper. The typical Byzantine book, or codex, was made of folded and sewn leaves, generally in groups of four, forming quaternions/quires. Exemplars, consumers, and scribes all play important roles in production. Instead of following the macro-chronology of emperors and dynasties, this article examines the micro-chronology of the book-production process in the Byzantine Empire, focusing on major changes over time.
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