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date: 20 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article views international legal sanction processes as richly varied and dynamic, involving numerous types of participants, with various sanction objectives, operating in both formal and less formal fora or processes, utilizing various types of resources, with varied effects and long-term consequences. It identifies certain areas of debate and suggests a future scholarly agenda. With that in mind, it is evident that increasing attention to the creation, shaping, and efficacy of international law outside such traditional institutional settings should be part of a future scholarly agenda regardless of one's jurisprudential bias. The discussion covers participants in the sanction process, sanction objectives, formal fora, less formal processes, and more specific sanction strategies or problems.

Keywords: international law, legal scholarship, domestic courts, criminal prosecution, civil litigation

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