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date: 08 April 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This article first describes the relationship between intergovernmental relationships(IGR) and networking, partnerships, performance, accountability, governance, the new public management (NPM), and the policy processes. It then discusses the implications of policy tool choices for IGR. The nature of the tool chosen to implement national goals can significantly affect the degrees of freedom and fiscal fortunes of state and local governments. It is followed by an analysis of the relationship between IGR and partnerships. Offered is a comparison of the tools and implementation issues associated with four major policy initiatives: the Real ID Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Help America Vote Act, and the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Each of the examples shows the complexity of intergovernmental relationships and the shifts that occur as the program moves along the policy formulation and implementation path. The article further determines several of the most promising areas for future research.

Keywords: intergovernmental relationships, policy tool, networking, partnerships, governance, new public management, Real ID Act, No Child Left Behind Act, Help America Vote Act, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program

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