Abstract and Keywords
This article first discusses legislative skills in some detail. The internal executive policy-making and policy implementation processes drive the institutional components of the legislative presidency. The article then outlines the research on the impact of these skills on legislative policy output, and poses some substantive and methodological issues that scholars and practitioners need to address. It specifically addresses the divergence of opinion on the importance of presidents' legislative skills on policy outcomes in Congress. The limitations that the constitutional, institutional, and political systems impose on the exercise of presidential power in Congress create a variety of leadership problems for presidents. They widen the gap between promises and performance. Both president and Congress have a stake in making the system work by creating mechanisms for building policy consensus and for bridging the institutional and oftentimes political divide.
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