- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- Language and Translation of the Old Testament
- Language, Translation, Versions, and Text of the Apocrypha
- Language and Translation of the New Testament
- Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament
- Textual Transmission and Versions of the New Testament
- Introduction: General Problems of Studying the Text of the Bible in order to Reconstruct History and Social Background
- Israel to the End of the Persian Period: History, Social, Political, and Economic background
- Israel from the Rise of Hellenisim to 70 ce
- The Life and Teaching of Jesus and the Rise of Christianity
- The Growth of the Old Testament
- The Growth of the Apocrypha
- The Growth of the New Testament
- Authors, Books, and Readers in the Ancient World
- Textual Criticism
- Form, Source, and Redaction Criticism
- Rhetorical and New Literary Criticism
- Feminist Criticism and Related Aspects
- Social, Political, and Ideological Criticism
- Old Testament Theology
- New Testament Theology
- Biblical Theology
- The Bible in Ethics
- Jewish Interpretation of the Bible
- Historical Criticism and the Authority of the Bible
- Index of Subjects and Names
- Index of References
Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses Jewish history from the rise of Hellenism to 70 CE. The Hellenistic and Roman periods belong to what is often referred to as the ‘Second Temple period’ – a self-contained historical era marked off by the Exile at one end and the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE at the other. The Jews of the Second Temple period neither inhabited the world of the Israelite and Judean monarchies nor practised the religion of the rabbis. The Second Temple period began with the Persian Empire (c.539–331 BCE), which ended with the conquest of Alexander. It is often assumed that a major break came about in Judaism with the coming of the Greeks, but recent study shows that the situation is more complex than that. First, many of the innovations that characterized Second Temple Judaism had their origins in the Persian period (though often continuing to develop in the Greek and Roman periods). Second, the Greeks added a new element to the culture, but the native cultures continued to flourish.
Lester L. Grabbe is Professor Emeritus of Hebrew Bible and Early Judaism at the University of Hull in Hull, England.
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