- List of Maps, Tables, and Illustrations
- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- Origins of Modern Germany
- Senses of Place
- Women and Men: 1760–1960
- States, People, and Nation, 1760–1860
- International Conflict, War, and the Making of Modern Germany, 1740–1815
- Cosmopolitanism and the German Enlightenment
- The Atlantic Revolutions in the German Lands, 1776–1849
- The End of the Economic Old Order: the Great Transition, 1750–1860
- Escaping Malthus: Population Explosion and Human Movement, 1760–1884
- Protestants, Catholics, and Jews, 1760–1871: Enlightenment, Emancipation, New Forms of Piety
- The Formation of German Nationalism, 1740–1850
- German Literature and Thought From 1810 to 1890
- Germany: The Nation State
- Nation State, Conflict Resolution, and Culture War, 1850–1878
- Authoritarian State, Dynamic Society, Failed Imperialist Power, 1878–1914
- The Great Transformation: German Economy and Society, 1850–1914
- Race and World Politics: Germany in the Age of Imperialism, 1878–1914
- Germany 1914–1918. Total War as a Catalyst of Change
- The German National Economy in an Era of Crisis and War, 1917–1945
- Dictatorship and Democracy, 1918–1939
- Piety, Power, and Powerlessness: Religion and Religious Groups in Germany, 1870–1945
- The Place of German Modernism
- Nationalism in the Era of the Nation State, 1870–1945
- Todesraum: War, Peace, and the Experience of Mass Death, 1914–1945
- The Three Horseman of the Holocaust: Anti-Semitism, East European Empire, Aryan Folk Community
- On the Move: Mobility, Migration, and Nation, 1880–1948
- Germany 1945–1989
- Germany is No More: Defeat, Occupation, and the Postwar Order
- Democracy and Dictatorship in the Cold War: the Two Germanies, 1949–1961
- Generations: The ‘Revolutions’ of the 1960s
- Industrialization, Mass Consumption, Post-industrial Society
- Religion and the Search For Meaning, 1945–1990
- Culture in the Shadow of Trauma?
- The Two German States in the International World
- Contemporary Germany
- <i>Annus Mirabilis</i>: 1989 and German Unification
- Germany and European Integration Since 1945
- Toward A Multicultural Society?
Abstract and Keywords
The major focus of this article is the study of the amalgamation of various religions that were practiced in German society. Friedrich Karl von Moser's lament in On the German National Spirit (1765) is vivid testimony to the fact that, from the beginning, the German question was a question of religion. According to Moser, the notion of a ‘Catholic’ Germany opposing a ‘Protestant’ Germany was so deeply embedded that even two quite open-minded individuals, if they were of differing confessions, had to overcome a ‘strongly rooted revulsion’ in order to associate with each other. This article examines some of the major shifts in German religious life in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Until quite recently, scholarship tended to present religion in this era as first accommodating, then resisting, and ultimately succumbing to the forces of modernity. A detailed analysis of confessional conflicts, theological conflicts between Christians and Jews concludes this article.
George S. Williamson is Associate Professor of History at Florida State University.
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