Abstract and Keywords
In recent decades, substantial advances have been made in the creation of systematic procedures for the conduct of policies relevant to an organization's human resources. These developments present challenges to the validity of personnel practices that have been honed in monocultural settings. Put rather too crudely, companies must either modify their practices to accommodate the increasing diversity of their workforces, or they must find ways to create sufficiently uniform organizational cultures to permit the retention of the procedures developed earlier. An early indication of the difficulties inherent in the second of these options was provided by Hofstede's survey of IBM employees. This article discusses the conceptual framework provided by Hofstede's project. It then considers some of the major ways in which cultural variations may affect organizational behavior. The article draws on both nation-level and individual-level concepts in detailing a cultural perspective on several key issues relevant to personnel psychology.
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