- The Oxford Handbook of International Business 2nd edition
- Preface to Second Edition
- Preface to First Edition
- Acknowledgements for Second Edition
- Acknowledgements for First Edition
- The History of the Multinational Enterprise
- The Key Literature on IB Activities: 1960–2006
- The Gravity Equation in International Trade
- Strategic Complexity in International Business
- Theories of the Multinational Enterprise
- Location, Competitiveness, and the Multinational Enterprise
- Sovereignty@Bay: Globalization, Multinational Enterprise, and the International Political System
- National Policies and Domestic Politics
- Multinational Enterprises and Public Policy
- Unbundling the Institution‐Based View of International Business Strategy
- Multilateral Institutions and Policies: Implications for Multinational Business Strategy
- Strategy and the Multinational Enterprise
- The Multinational Enterprise as an Organization
- Strategy and Management In MNE Subsidiaries
- Strategic Alliances
- Innovation and Information Technology in the MNE
- Contemporary Research Trends in International Marketing: The 2000s
- Culture and Human Resources Management
- Environmental Policy and International Business
- International Financial Management and Multinational Enterprises
- Taxes, Transfer Pricing, and The Multinational Enterprise
- China and International Business
- The Smaller Economies of Pacific Asia and Their Business Systems
- Methodological Contributions in International Business and the Direction of Academic Research Activity
- Political Risk and Country Risk in International Business: Concepts and Measures
- Comparative International Business Research Methods : Pitfalls and Practicalities
- Metrics for International Business Research
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
An essential feature of the MNE is that internationalization of activities is a process that unfolds across time and space. Historically, a company typically started as a domestic enterprise and became more international over time, as the number of countries in which it operated, the number of subunits which it had to manage, and the range of activities in which it was engaged, expanded. The basic assumption that the activities and features of its organization would change predictably with internationalization has given models of the MNE a strongly evolutionary character. Although evolutionary theory has often been associated with highly deterministic theories of environmental selection, there are many variants that allow for strategic choices and for multiple evolutionary paths.
D. Eleanor Westney is the Scotiabank Professor of International Business at the Schulich School of Business of York University in Canada and Emeritus Professor at the Sloan Management School of MIT.
Srilata Zaheer, Professor, Carlson Professor of Strategic Management, University of Minnesota.
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