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date: 30 March 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter compares phonological change in apparent time with change in real time, showing that the first can be skewed by, e.g., age grading or changes in attitudes. Further, it compares trend and panel studies as methods to overcome such limitations, and reviews evidence of the advantages and disadvantages of each type of study. In addition, the findings of real time studies that have been conducted demonstrate that individuals’ linguistic behaviour changes throughout the lifespan, and the chapter discusses the importance of that finding for our understanding of historical phonology.

Keywords: apparent time change, real time change, age grading, lifespan change, accommodation, trend study, panel study

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