Abstract and Keywords
This article explores the evidence for contacts between different areas and population groups, as ‘trade’ is only one mode of achieving ‘exchange’, and cannot always be separated from the rest. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, new analytical technologies have been applied to the question of the relationship between indigenous British and incoming ‘Germanic’ population elements in the creation of Anglo-Saxon societies. The development of Anglo-Saxon societies in Mercia and Northumbria kingdoms is presented. There is little evidence for extensive contact between the British kingdoms of Wales and the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the fifth or sixth centuries, though there is epigraphic evidence showing travel, at least at the level of the British social elite, between Wales and British territories in eastern Britain. The most notable evidence for Anglo-Saxon advance into Welsh territory was the foundation by Edward the Elder in 921 of the Anglo-Saxon burh at Rhuddlan, Clwyd.
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