- Copyright Page
- Preface and Acknowledgements
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Contributors
- The Description and Comparison of Societal Systems of Higher Education and University Management
- Criticality, Academic Autonomy, and Societal Progress
- Socializing Human Capital for Twenty-First Century Educational Goals: Suggestive Empirical Findings from Multinational Research
- Changing the Nature and Role of Universities: The Effects of Funding and Governance Reforms on Universities as Accountable Organizational Actors
- Recent Trends in East and West University Governance: Two Kinds of Hollowness
- Cycles of Evolution of Ideal Types of Universities: Causes and Consequences for the University Mission—The Case of Poland
- The Implications of a Diversifying Workforce for Institutional Governance and Management in Higher Education
- The Collegial Tradition in English Higher Education: What Is It, What Sustains It, and How Viable Is Its Future?
- Managing a University in Turbulent Times
- Critical Factors and Forces Influencing Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century
- A New World of Communications in Higher Education and Its Implications
- Leading in Higher Education
- Policy and Practice in University–Business Relations
- Macro Changes and the Implications for Equality and Social and Gender Justice in Higher Education
- Macro Changes and the Implications for Higher Education Research: A Case Study in the Health Sector and Graduate Practice
- Canada in a Global System of Higher Education: The Role of Community Engagement
- Developing and Maintaining Transnational Research Collaborations: A Case Study of Australian Universities
- Scholarship in the University: An Ecological Perspective
- Higher Education Finance: Global Realities, Policy Options, and Common Misunderstandings
- Educating for the Cooperative Society: The Role of Government in Building Human and Social Capital
- Educating for the Cooperative Society: The Role of Industry in Building Human and Social Capital
- Educating for the Cooperative Society: The Role of Universities, Research, and the Academic Professions in Fostering Good Citizenship
- Governments Need To, and Do, Trust Universities
- Education and Technological Unemployment in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
- Educating for the Innovative Society: The Role of Indian Institutes of Technology in India
- Policy Implications for Equity, Gender, and Widening Participation in Higher Education
- Reactions, Reflections, and Renewal: The Significance of Higher Education for Intellectual, Societal, and Personal Advancement
- Maintaining the Contribution of Higher Education to Societal Progress
Abstract and Keywords
The combination of expanded participation in higher education and changing state financing and governance policies is transforming the nature and activities of research universities in many OECD countries. Historically, their strategic autonomy as discrete organizational actors and ability to develop distinctive competitive competences differed considerably between national higher education systems. Three main types of university can be distinguished in these terms: Hollow, State-Chartered, and Corporate. Limited formal delegation of authority over academic staff and other resources and responsibility for scientific and financial performance to the managers of hollow-like universities is leading to the emergence of a fourth type: State-guided. The increasing intensification of pseudo-market competition for resources and prestige between state-chartered universities together with greater state steering of research priorities is reducing their strategic independence. The growing use of performance-based funding and standardized research evaluation systems by many states encourages imitation strategies and increases tensions between university management and academics pursuing extra-institutional scientific goals.
Richard Whitley is Emeritus Professor of Organizational Sociology at Manchester Business School, University of Manchester. He has undertaken extensive work in the sociology of science and the changing organization of higher education. He is also a major founding influence in the comparative study of economic organization and societal business systems. Richard’s publications include: The Intellectual and Social Organization of the Sciences (Oxford University Press, 1984, 2000); Business Systems in East Asia (1992); European Business Systems (1992); The Changing European Firm (1996); Governance at Work: The Social Regulation of Economic Relations (Oxford University Press, 1997); Divergent Capitalisms: The Social Structuring and Change of Business Systems (Oxford University Press, 1999); National Capitalisms, Global Competition and Economic Performance (2000); The Multi-National Firm (Oxford University Press, 2001); Competing Capitalisms (2002); Changing Capitalisms? Internationalization, Institutional Change and Systems of Economic Organization (Oxford University Press, 2005); Business Systems and Organizational Capabilities: The Institutional Structuring of Competitive Competences (Oxford University Press, 2007); The Changing Governance of the Sciences (2007); Reconfiguring Knowledge Production (Oxford University Press, 2010); Capitalisms and Capitalism in the Twenty First Century (Oxford University Press, 2012); Organizational Transformation and Scientific Change: The Impact of Institutional Restructuring on Universities and Intellectual Innovation (2014); and Changing Asian Business Systems (Oxford University Press, 2016). His work on the comparison of higher education systems and the problem of university ‘actorhood’ has been a significant influence on the thinking behind this handbook. In 1998–9 he served as the Chair of the European Group for Organizational Studies and in 1999–2000 was the President of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics. In 2007 he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities. Current research interests include the study of how the changing governance of public science systems is affecting scientific innovations in different countries and how different kinds of innovations are legitimated and established in different artistic and scientific fields.
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