Abstract and Keywords
Since the 1980s, international and Kenyan-based NGOs have come to play a pivotal position in the governance of service provision in Kenya. Not only do they provide services directly to citizens, but they also engage in indirect provision, collaborative provision, and policy-making related to service provision locally or nationally. As such, NGOs have come to form part of the de facto organizational composition of the Kenyan public administration. The political economy effects of this NGO participation have been mixed: service provision has expanded, particularly where there is collaboration in delivery, and there has been some movement toward greater line-ministry accountability and participatory development techniques. At the same time, however, NGOs may lend legitimacy to undeserving local or national political regimes, may reduce the possibility for democratic accountability for service provision, and may thrive at the expense of Kenya state capacity.
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