- The Oxford Handbook of Citizenship
- List of Abbreviations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Citizenship—<i>Quo Vadis</i>?
- Revisiting the Classical Ideal of Citizenship
- Re-Scaling the Geography of Citizenship
- Political Membership and Democratic Boundaries
- Liberal and Republican Conceptions of Citizenship
- Citizenship and Nationhood
- The History of Racialized Citizenship
- Feminist, Sexual, and Queer Citizenship
- Postcolonial Citizenship
- Economic Theories of Citizenship Ascension
- Comparing Citizenship Regimes
- Citizenship and Human Rights
- Citizenship and Cultural Diversity
- Citizenship and the Franchise
- Status Non-Citizens
- Citizenship in Immigration States
- Citizenship and State Transition
- Citizenship in Non-Western Contexts
- Indigenous Citizenship in Settler States
- Secular and Religious Citizenship
- Performative Citizenship
- Does Citizenship Matter?
- The Place of Territory in Citizenship
- Diasporas and Transnational Citizenship
- Fragmentation of Citizenship Governance
- Multiple Citizenship
- Multilevel Citizenship
- Supranational Citizenship
- Cosmopolitan Citizenship
- On Refugeehood and Citizenship
- Statelessness, ‘In-Between’ Statuses, and Precarious Citizenship
- Citizenship and Technology
- Citizenship For Sale?
- Citizenship and Membership Duties Toward Quasi-Citizens
- Inclusive Citizenship Beyond the Capacity Contract
Abstract and Keywords
A future of greater migration will put pressure on the exclusive territorial model of citizenship. In the deepest analytical sense, bundled citizenship is incoherent, and made more so by extraterritorial effects of national decision-making—by the effects on persons in other territories—and, as salient for this chapter, by the mobility of persons that makes them experience effects of governmental decisions in other territories. For most historic periods since the emergence of the modern state system and in most regional contexts this mobility of persons was not significant enough, and the role of the state in providing positive rights was not great enough, to necessitate an international regime for assigning states responsibility for positive rights, and assigning individuals duties to states. However, with greater demand for mobility, greater cooperation to divide up the components of citizenship may be desirable.
Joel P. Trachtman is Professor of International Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Recent books include The Future of International Law: Global Government (Cambridge University Press, 2013); The International Law of Economic Migration: Toward the Fourth Freedom (Upjohn Institute, 2009); Ruling the World: Constitutionalism, International Law, and Global Governance (Cambridge University Press, 2009); and The Economic Structure of International Law (Harvard University Press, 2008).
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