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date: 14 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter traces the development of citizenship in immigrant-receiving states, comparing the Gulf States in the Middle East with the Western states of Europe and North America. In particular, I juxtapose these states` opposite responses to the fact of immigration, which is exclusion in the Gulf and inclusion in the West. These opposite responses articulate a structural ambivalence of citizenship, which is to be inclusive to the inside but exclusive to the outside. Among the factors conditioning inclusive or exclusive outcomes are the liberal-democratic features of Western states and the autocratic and rentier character of Gulf States.

Keywords: Citizenship, immigration, Gulf States, Western states, European Union, nationality law, individual rights, liberalism, nations and nationalism

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