Abstract and Keywords
The late 1990s was a key moment when Zimbabwe’s civil society actors actively shaped political discourse, but also a time in which their roles were challenged and their networks came under attack. As the 2000s progressed, they were further challenged by brain drain, the difficulties of power-sharing, an increasingly factionalized political environment, and changing donor demands. NGOs, unions, churches, and other groups in Zimbabwe formed an essential part of the political contestations of these turbulent years. Drawing on research by the authors across three decades, this chapter explores how Zimbabwe’s civil society organizations legitimize, resist, and attempt to transform hegemonic norms.
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