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date: 25 July 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter takes a historical perspective on examining the utility and validity of various introspective-type methods. First, specific contributions of some of the pioneers of introspective methods are considered, highlighting key motivations and arguments that have spurred methodological evolution over the past 100+ years. Next, current methods of thinking aloud are reviewed. Then the types of verbal reports of thinking used to study expertise are described. In the penultimate section, some guidance on using these methods is offered. In the concluding part, a summary of the key recommendations is provided, and some thoughts on the future of introspection methodology that, it is hoped, will improve the state-of-the-science and escape the legacies of behaviorism are offered.

Keywords: cognitive task analysis, experimentation, expertise, inner perception, naturalism, self-observation, thinking, think aloud reports, validity, verbal reports

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