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date: 20 July 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The evolution of the factory in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was one of the most significant components of the process of industrialization, the impact of which is still being felt today. Early factories played a vital part in the development of artificial lighting, particularly in the use of gas lights. This role was not confined to the pioneering of the technology; also, perhaps more significantly, it altered public attitudes to these new forms of illumination. This chapter describes these technological and social developments, but also shows how the changes which new lighting technologies brought to the workplace were often not as many previous authors have assumed.

Keywords: factory conditions, lighting, Argand, oil lamps, gas lights, Boulton & Watt, William Murdoch, Samuel Clegg, working hours, night working

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