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date: 18 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter explores the relationship between participatory and deliberative democracy; analysing their similarities and differences, compatibilities and tensions, to ascertain whether they should, and can, be pursued in tandem. The case is made that the normative and explanatory potential of each approach is diminished without the presence of the other in these conceptions so it is desirable and coherent to pursue a ‘participatory deliberative democracy’ in which citizens participate in making collective decisions through deliberation. There are certainly challenges in combining them, but the inconclusive evidence on their compatibility provides insufficient reason not to try given the legitimacy benefits that could be accrued if successful. Indeed, it is concluded that many citizens would welcome more opportunities to participate in, meaningful and consequential, deliberation.

Keywords: participatory democracy, deliberative democracy, participatory deliberative democracy, political participation, deliberation, empirical democratic theory, liberal democracy

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