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date: 14 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The article first discusses definitions of the term dualism on the basis of its usage in modern scholarship, including a taxonomy of various types of dualistic oppositions in early Jewish and early Christian texts. In the second section, the author provides a brief sketch of the application of the term in Johannine studies, especially in the Bultmann school and in the debate on the influence of Qumran texts and ideas. He then describes various elements of dualistic language in the Gospel and the Epistles of John, including names of eschatological opponents, the spatial categories of above and below, the metaphoric language of light and darkness, the notion of a final eschatological destiny of life or death, and the opposition of the community and the world. On the basis of those observations, the function of the dualistic language elements in the Gospel and Epistles of John is determined.

Keywords: dualism, History-of-Religions, Bultmann, Qumran, language, opponents, light, world

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