Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the vortex matter of mesoscopic superconductors with numerous vortex states that do not exist in bulk superconductors. Using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, it investigates the organization of vortex cores at different levels of confinement. The article begins with a discussion of the basic properties of quantum vortices in superconductors and experimental requirements for studying vortex confinement phenomena. It then considers the effect of sample size and shape on vortex distribution and pinning, along with the resulting ultra-dense configurations that cannot be achieved in bulk superconductors. It also describes the peculiar features of vortices in atomically thin superconductors having mixed Abrikosov–Josephson vortices.
Keywords: vortex matter, mesoscopic superconductors, vortex states, quantum vortices, vortex confinement, atomically thin superconductors, Abrikosov–Josephson vortices, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy
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