Abstract and Keywords
This chapter looks at the so-called ‘new Protestantism’ that developed in the nineteenth century in reaction to modernity. Protestantism during this period was an international movement characterized by expansion, progress, and diversity. This chapter provides an overview of the key theological contributions and religious movements that exemplify this progress, showing how mediation and reformulation play an important role in shaping Protestant attitudes regarding modernity. Academic religious debates focused on theological methodology and epistemology in response to modern advances in various fields, and Protestant scholars made contributions to developments in the field of religious studies, not least by participating in the global cross-fertilization of religious ideas and systems. Restoration and renewal were also important themes among certain reform groups. Nineteenth-century Protestantism was a global movement that was advanced by revivalism, religious societies, and modern universities, with neo-confessionalism and other movements flourishing as a result.
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